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The challenge of providing local authorities, on whom reconstruction and development in Haiti depends, with support as early as the relief phase
Béatrice Boyer & Ben Oduwa

 

 Evolution of aid with the launch of institutional support programmes due to the creation of the Haiti Reconstruction Fund (FRH).

The end of the extreme emergency phase in Haiti coincided with the establishment of the Haiti Reconstruction Fund (HRF) [4] which replaced the multi-donor Interim Commission for the Reconstruction of Haiti [5]. As the role of the HRF is to support the Haiti Recovery and Reconstruction Plan, the United Nations system and a number of donors decided to establish several programmes to meet reconstruction needs. It was in this context, and in connection with the national strategy of the Haiti Recovery and Development Action Plan that the Support Programme for the Reconstruction of Housing and Neighbourhoods (PARLOQ) was created.

Indeed, despite its title and objective of supporting the reconstruction of housing and neighbourhoods, the PARLOQ was only operational during the post-emergency phase. Communication about it was irregular, beginning strongly but subsequently not being maintained. It was not well understood by international organisations operating in municipal contexts, but it did nevertheless play a pertinent role in providing structural support to different institutions and an innovative capacity building role which was particularly important for municipal authorities affected by the earthquake.

With more than 70% of international funding and 30% participation by the Haitian government, this programme aimed to empower Haitian institutions. It aimed to support administrative technical capacity through the production of decision-making tools to help authorities with re-housing and redevelopment. This programme had four components and its coherence depended on how they were linked. Component 1 concerned information collection capacity and aimed to “count the number of affected people and damaged buildings”. Component 2 aimed to develop a “housing and neighbourhood information system” (SILQ) to share the data with reconstruction organizations. Component 3 aimed to support Municipal and Community Support Centres involving three levels of coordination and responsibility: ministerial, municipal and community-based. And lastly, component 4 concerned assistance for Participatory and Strategic Urban Planning.

The iterative evaluation of the PARLOQ carried out by Groupe URD highlighted the central role of component 3, providing support to municipal authorities, as the main user of the tools generated by the other components. Though the title of component 3 refers only to the creation of Municipal and Community Support Centres, in reality it generated a system to help in decision-making linking the local municipal level and the governmental level. The mechanisms created with this component are as much about supporting local authorities, with the creation of ten Local Technical Agencies (ATL) and twelve Community Resource Centres (CRCs), as they are about supporting the Ministry of the Interior and Local Authorities (MICT) with the creation of the Cellule de Suivi Evaluation et Communication (CSEC), a monitoring and support unit for these municipal mechanisms. This unit has already been established in the long term having been integrated into the MICT.


[4] As funds are principally funded by the IDB, the United Nations, the World Bank is aware of the contribution of several states including rapidly Japan, Norway, France, Brazil and the United States to mention only those.

[5] See http://www.haitireconstructionfund.org