After twenty-five years of war, but also seven years after the beginning of the massive intervention of the International Community following the collapse of the Taliban regime, the population expresses a certain dissatisfaction. It is important to deepen knowledge of the country and its social structures in order to be able to support it in its reconstruction, which is necessary for regional and international stability. To know this society means to take the measure of its contradictions, its discomforts but also its capacities of resilience and evolution. The military solution is not the cure for Afghan ills. We must focus on the conditions and mechanisms for sustainable peace.